What is DNS and DNS Server? How DNS works? Types & Records of DNS?

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You have heard of a DNS or Domain Name System, but don't know what exactly a DNS is or what is the purpose of DNS and how to use DNS on your computer or for your website domain name.

I bet you will have limited knowledge about DNS and DNS servers, so to clear your question and best practices about DNS, continue reading this article. It will help you understand what a DNS is, What a DNS server is, how to configure a DNS and DNS server, what if a DNS server is down, How you can use a DNS server for security and internet speed etc.

So, let's stop wasting time and continue to our main topics.

What is DNS?

A DNS Stands for Domain Name System, which translates the domain name into an IP address.

We can also say that DNS is like your mobile contacts, you save the numbers with the person's name, same applies here, DNS is the phonebook of the internet, every computer is identified by IP address, a number like 192.168.10.1 and the DNS server translate that IP address into human understandable form like hassangul.com, meta.com, google.com.

How DNS works?

Behind every domain name, an IP address is associated, when we enter a website URL in the browser, the browser fetches the DNS record from the DNS server and points the request to that specific server IP address where the website exists and delivers your request to that specific computer. your request is fulfilled on the server side (computer) and then send back to you, and all the resources which you requested load into your browser screen and display to you.

The same applies to your internet ISP and your computer, when you are surfing the internet you are using DNS in your computer which helps you route the traffic via a specific path provided by ISP (internet service provider).

How DNS Works in Detail:

When you type a website's address into your browser, your computer sends a request to a DNS server, which acts as a sort of internet directory. The DNS server looks up the domain name you entered and translates it into the corresponding IP address. This IP address is then used to connect to the appropriate server and access the website.

DNS works by using a hierarchical structure. At the top of the hierarchy are the root DNS servers, which are responsible for resolving requests for top-level domains (TLDs) such as .com, .org, and .net.

When a user's computer sends a request to a DNS server, the server first checks its cache to see if it has recently resolved the same domain name. If it has, it returns the corresponding IP address to the user's computer. If not, the DNS server sends a request to a root DNS server to resolve the TLD.

The root DNS server then responds with the IP address of a top-level domain (TLD) DNS server, which is responsible for resolving requests for a specific TLD. The DNS server then sends a request to the TLD DNS server, which response with the IP address of the authoritative DNS server for the specific domain name.

Finally, the DNS server receives the IP address from the authoritative DNS server and returns it to the user's computer, allowing it to connect to the appropriate server and access the website.

What is DNS Server?

A Domain Name System (DNS) server is a type of computer server that is responsible for translating human-readable website addresses, such as “google.com”, into their corresponding numerical IP addresses, such as “172.217.22.174”. This allows computers to communicate with each other and access websites on the internet.

When a user types a domain name into their browser, their computer sends a request to a DNS server. The DNS server then looks up the corresponding IP address from the DNS records and returns it to the user's computer, allowing it to connect to the appropriate server and access the website.

DNS servers are typically provided by internet service providers (ISPs) or can be set up by the user. Some DNS servers are run by organizations as a way to improve internet security and speed by filtering out harmful websites and caching commonly accessed websites for faster loading.

In addition to providing a way to easily access websites, DNS servers also allow for flexibility and control over website addresses. For example, a single website can have multiple domain names that all point to the same IP address, making it easier for users to find and access the website. DNS servers also support subdomains, which provide a way to organize and structure a website into different sections.

Overall, DNS servers play a crucial role in allowing us to access the vast amount of information available on the internet using easy-to-remember domain names. Without them, the internet would be a much more difficult and frustrating place to navigate.

Types of DNS Servers:

There are three different types of DNS servers, each with its own unique characteristics and uses.

1. Recursive DNS Server

A recursive DNS server is typically provided by internet service providers (ISPs) or DNS hosting companies. A Recursive DNS server is also known as a caching DNS server. This type of DNS server is typically located at the edge of a network and is responsible for handling DNS queries from client computers.

When a client computer makes a DNS query, the recursive DNS server will check its own cache to see if it already has the answer. If it doesn't, the server will then query other DNS servers (authoritative DNS servers) on the internet to find the answer and cache it for future use. This helps to improve the performance of the DNS by reducing the number of queries that need to be made to other DNS servers.

2. Caching DNS Server

Caching DNS Server, which stores the IP addresses of frequently accessed websites in its cache. This allows for faster loading times for commonly visited websites and can help reduce the workload on the recursive DNS server.

3. Authoritative DNS Server

An authoritative DNS server is responsible for storing the actual DNS records for a particular domain. When a recursive DNS server receives a query for a particular domain, it will query the authoritative DNS server for that domain to get the correct IP address. The authoritative DNS server is typically managed by the owner of the domain and is used to configure the DNS records for the domain name.

4. DNS resolver

The third type of DNS server is called a DNS resolver. This type of server is typically located on the client's computer and is responsible for making DNS queries on behalf of the user. The DNS resolver will first check its own cache to see if it already has the answer to a DNS query. If it doesn't, it will then query a recursive DNS server to get the answer. The DNS resolver is a key component of the DNS system, as it is responsible for making the actual DNS queries that enable users to access websites on the internet.

Example of DNS server:

One example of a DNS server is the Google Public DNS server, which is a recursive DNS server provided by Google. This server is available to anyone on the internet and can be used as a DNS resolver by setting it as the DNS server in the network settings on a computer or other device. By using the Google Public DNS server, users can benefit from the improved performance and reliability of Google's global network of DNS servers.

What is DNS Record?

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